||This course is designed to introduce the physical therapy student to the use of modalities, including both physical agents and electrotherapy, as interventions in clinical practice. This course will provide the student the guidance to evaluate literature regarding thermal and physical modalities. Through collaborative efforts, students will review literature and apply information to case studies and present to fellow classmates and course instructors. Students will participate in role-play with therapeutic modalities. This will provide the experience needed to develop proficiency in the practical use of modalities as a physical therapy direct intervention. The physics, chemistry, physiological effects, indications and contraindications along with the application of each modality will be studied.