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Course Descriptions (Standard A3.14d)

HS 668, 669: Independent Study-Community Service

Course Description In keeping with the Touro College mission to serve the larger community, students in the School of Health Sciences are required to complete an independent study that involves a minimum of twenty-five (25) hours of community service with individuals disadvantaged due to illness, disability, or other circumstance. The purpose of this requirement is to (1) provide students in the School of Health Sciences with an opportunity to learn from, and give back to, the larger community; (2) enhance awareness of how a disability or illness impacts the individual, family, friends, caregivers, and community. Through this experience, students may interact with people from different cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds, with people who have impairments leading to functional limitations in the physical, cognitive, and/or social-emotional domains, or with people who struggle with issues related to poverty, homelessness and hunger. The specifics of the experience and project undertaken are negotiated on an individual basis between the student and the department faculty advisor. HS 669 may be taken as an additional elective, upon approval of the student's advisor, in the same or subsequent semesters.
Prerequisites
Credits 1



MPA 642: Health Care Delivery Systems

Course Description Introduces students to general concepts of health care delivery and the characteristics and functions of some important delivery systems. Emphasis is placed on decentralized, community-based and primary care systems, ambulatory care systems, as well as long-term care systems. Financial and ethical issues that challenge today's system and ways to address them.
Prerequisites
Credits 3



MPA 645: Health Science Epidemiology & Biostatistics

Course Description Students gain the knowledge and skills to understand and apply epidemiological methods and statistical analysis in medical and/or public health settings. Students are introduced to the distribution and determinants of health and disease in the human population and the application of this study to the control and prevention of disease. Selected infectious and/or chronic diseases are studied with regard to describing their distributions and courses, analyzing their causes, and developing approaches to their prevention and control. Students develop and apply basic conceptual and analytical skills in the design and conduct of epidemiologic studies, and evaluate the process of epidemiologic surveillance. The course will also familiarize students with concepts in biostatistics, such as measures of disease frequency, measures of effect, and statistical significance. Students will be instructed in standard techniques of data collection and analysis, and the content of vital statistics and mass data in the health field
Prerequisites
Credits 2



MPA 646: Medical Research Methods and Literature Review

Course Description Research methodology, experimental design, statistical analysis, and critical evaluation of the medical literature, and their applications to physician assistant practice. Students are introduced to study designs, and analyze their comparative strengths and limitations. Students will gain the knowledge and skills to effectively use biostatistics in research design and data analysis. Topics include choosing correct statistical methods and study designs in research and practice, descriptive statistics, probability and probability distributions, estimation and hypothesis testing, confidence intervals, simple linear regression, introduction to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and an introduction to the use of statistical software packages. Emphasis is on the development of skills required to contribute to the development of the body of knowledge of the profession as entry-level researchers, including: the pursuit of excellence in scientific inquiry, critical thinking, clinical interest and creativity in a scholarly end-product. Students apply their knowledge and skills to formulate research questions and hypotheses, develop research protocols, conduct computerized searches, and review and critically analyze the medical literature. Students will use journal articles and other evidence-based resources to address clinical questions and scenarios, and apply evidence-based medicine to clinical practice. Ethical issues in research are discussed, including informed consent and the function of an IRB. By the end of the course, students will have chosen a topic for their capstone project
Prerequisites
Credits 3



MPA 647: Medical Ethics and Healthcare Policy

Course Description In seminar format, topics in medical ethics that develop the analytical skills and reflective sensitivity required for responsive, responsible and productive decision-making between patients and professional. Topics discussed include ethical decisions at both the beginning and the end of life, risk/benefit decision-making in medicine, confidentiality and privacy. Students also discuss a variety of professional practice issues, such as privilege and confidentiality in communicating with patients, political and legal issues, credentialing and licensure, professional liability, and the physician-PA team relationship.
Prerequisites
Credits 3



MPA 653: PA Master's Project I

Course Description Together, Master's Project I, II, and III (MPA 653-655) are designed as a "capstone" to the program. These seminars will assist students, as future health care professionals, in understanding how to put together a research study. Students work with a faculty advisor to formulate clinical questions and perform literature searches on the topics. The seminars provide an opportunity for students to demonstrate analytical ability and comprehensive understanding of a subject. The research work allows the student to conduct literature reviews, explore and analyze problems, and design a study to answer a clinical question. Students learn the structure of a research project and APA style. A major responsibility for the student is to prepare a research proposal, and present to fellow students. Master's Project I culminates in the writing of the initial draft of a 20-30 page paper.
Prerequisites
Credits 1



MPA 654: PA Master's Project II

Course Description In Master's Project II, students concentrate on refining, revising and finalizing their written paper, under the guidance of their faculty advisors. At the end of this course, students should have completed a graduate level research paper in APA style. The final, submitted paper should be suitable for potential publication.
Prerequisites
Credits 1



MPA 655: PA Master's Project III

Course Description In Master's Project III, students present a PowerPoint presentation of their project to faculty and peers. The final project should be suitable for presentation at a professional conference.
Prerequisites
Credits 1



MPA 664: Evidence Based Medicine

Course Description This course aims to introduce practitioners to principles of evidence-based practice and policy, practice guidelines, and information utilization for practice modeling. Increasingly, Physician Assistants are presented with new information about recent findings from research and professional consensus statements regarding best practice guidelines. This information pertains to practice assessment, intervention and the evaluation of outcomes. This course focuses on preparing students to engage in evidence-based practice, providing the skills needed to critically evaluate new information that is available from research findings and professional consensus statements. Furthermore, the course provides skills for integrating this new information into the studentsí own, personalized approach to practice.
Prerequisites
Credits 3



MPA 670: Clinical Medicine I

Course Description This course is system oriented and includes the etiology, recognition, and treatment of common diseases in the following areas of clinical medicine: cardiology, pulmonary medicine, and hematology. The anatomy, physiology, and concepts of physical diagnosis relating to each system are reviewed. The pathophysiology of disease states, differential diagnosis of symptoms, and physical findings, along with interpretation of laboratory and radiographic tests appropriate to each system, are discussed.
Prerequisites
Credits 4



MPA 671: Clinical Medicine II

Course Description This course is system oriented and includes the etiology, recognition, and treatment of common diseases in the following areas of clinical medicine: dermatology, rheumatology, and ophthalmology. The anatomy, physiology, and concepts of physical diagnosis relating to each system are reviewed. The pathophysiology of disease states, differential diagnosis of symptoms, and physical findings, along with interpretation of laboratory and radiographic tests appropriate to each system, are discussed.
Prerequisites
Credits 3



MPA 672: Clinical Medicine III

Course Description This course is system oriented and includes the etiology, recognition, and treatment of common diseases in the following areas of clinical medicine: gastroenterology, nephrology, neurology, and clinical psychiatry. The anatomy, physiology, and concepts of physical diagnosis relating to each system are reviewed. The pathophysiology of disease states, differential diagnosis of symptoms, and physical findings, along with interpretation of laboratory and radiographic tests appropriate to each system, are discussed.
Prerequisites
Credits 4



MPA 673: Clinical Medicine IV

Course Description The course provides the etiology, recognition, and treatment of common diseases in the areas of endocrinology and infectious diseases. It also includes a component in correlative medicine, which allows students to fully assimilate and utilize their medical and basic science knowledge along with physical diagnosis skills to address the types of patient health-care problems they may encounter in a clinical environment. This component utilizes the Problem-Based Learning Method as an instructional model, wherein students work both in groups and individually to develop a logical methodology of assessment of disease processes.
Prerequisites
Credits 2



PAC 670: Primary Care Medicine

Course Description Students are assigned to an out-patient department, primary care medical clinic or office practice, and work under supervision of licensed physicians and/or physician assistants and in conjunction with the health care team. This core rotation provides students with the opportunity to acquire the skills and knowledge necessary to serve a diverse cross-section of the patient population, and to treat patients of all ages in an ambulatory care setting. Students learn how to provide family-oriented primary care services, including acute and chronic disease management, health promotion, maintenance, psychosocial aspects of health care, patient education and disease prevention. Students incrementally develop the ability to analyze and synthesize medical information, to reason independently, and to apply the concepts of medical decision-making and problem-solving to complex patient presentations. In addition, students are familiarized with the differences in the coordination, management and follow-up of the outpatient as compared to the hospitalized patient, and with recognizing when to refer the patient for hospital admission. Students can also choose to repeat this core rotation as a Main Discipline Elective. PAC670 must be completed in order to begin PAC660, Primary Care Medicine Elective.
Prerequisites PAC 660
Credits 5



PAC 671: Pediatrics

Course Description Students are assigned to work under the supervision of licensed physicians and/or physician assistants and in conjunction with the healthcare team, either in an inpatient or an outpatient pediatric department, clinic, or office. PAC671 is a core rotation which emphasizes the care of the child from birth to adolescence. Students learn to recognize and manage common childhood illnesses, assess variations in normal growth and development, and provide preventive health care services including immunizations, routine screening, parental and interventional counseling. Students incrementally develop the ability to analyze and synthesize medical information, to reason independently, and to apply the concepts of medical decision-making and problem-solving to complex patient presentations. Students can also choose to repeat this core rotation as a Main Discipline Elective. PAC671 must be completed in order to begin PAC661, Pediatrics Elective
Prerequisites PAC671 (prerequisite for PAC661)
Credits 5



PAC 672: Emergency Medicine

Course Description Students are assigned to work under the supervision of licensed physicians and/or physician assistants and in conjunction with the healthcare team in the emergency room setting. PAC672 is a core rotation where students rotate through the various areas of the Emergency Department, including medical, surgical, pediatric, orthopedic, and fast track. Students learn to systematically evaluate and manage patients with acute medical and surgical emergencies, perform diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, and participate in cardiac and trauma resuscitations. Students incrementally develop the ability to analyze and synthesize medical information, to reason independently, and to apply the concepts of medical decision-making and problem-solving to complex patient presentations. Students are expected to attend grand rounds and scheduled lectures. Students can also choose to repeat this core rotation as a Main Discipline Elective. PAC672 must be completed in order to begin PAC662, Emergency Medicine Elective
Prerequisites prerequisite for PAC662
Credits 5



PAC 673 : Surgery

Course Description Students are assigned to work under the supervision of licensed surgeons and/or physician assistants and in conjunction with the healthcare team in the Department of Surgery. PAC673 is a core rotation where students become involved in all phases of diagnosis and treatment of the surgical patient, including pre-operative, operative, and post-anesthesia care. They learn the practical management of fluid, electrolyte and nutritional disturbances, post-operative infections, as well as wound healing and wound care. They scrub into the operating room and observe and assist in a variety of surgical procedures as assigned by the preceptor(s), and also become involved in the management of the critically ill surgical patient. Students incrementally develop the ability to analyze and synthesize medical information, to reason independently, and to apply the concepts of medical decision-making and problem-solving to complex patient presentations. Students are expected to attend daily rounds, grand rounds, morbidity & mortality conferences and scheduled lectures. Students can also choose to repeat this core rotation as a Main Discipline Elective. PAC673 must be completed in order to begin PAC663, Surgery Elective
Prerequisites prerequisite for PAC663
Credits 5



PAC 674: Internal Medicine

Course Description Students are assigned to the Department of Medicine and work directly under the supervision of the medical house staff. PAC674 is a core rotation where students medically evaluate hospitalized patients and follow their daily progress. In doing so, students learn to correlate history and physical findings with the patient's physiological and laboratory data and emotional state, in order to arrive at a differential diagnosis, formulate a treatment plan, and provide continuity of care. Students develop skills and demonstrate competency in performing and interpreting a variety of medical procedures and tasks. Attendance at daily rounds, grand rounds, medical conferences and an orientation to the medical intensive care unit are required. In certain settings, there are opportunities to work with the house-staff who are assigned to the medical clinic area, to monitor and follow up patient management problems, and to participate in the formulation of their management plans. Students incrementally develop the ability to analyze and synthesize medical information, to reason independently, and to apply the concepts of medical decision-making and problem-solving to complex patient presentations. Students are expected to attend daily rounds, grand rounds, and scheduled lectures. Students can also choose to repeat this core rotation as a Main Discipline Elective. PAC674 must be completed in order to begin PAC664, Internal Medicine Elective
Prerequisites prerequisite for PAC664
Credits 5



PAC 675: Long-Term Care

Course Description Students are assigned to work under the supervision of licensed physicians and/or physician assistants in conjunction with the healthcare team to gain practical clinical experience in working with the elderly and those patients who are suffering from chronic diseases. PAC675 is a core rotation where students are exposed to a wide variety of common geriatric and long-term care problems. This rotation stresses characteristics of the normal aging process, so that students may better identify and address deviations from the norm. Students gain exposure to end-of-life issues and psychosocial dynamics. Students incrementally develop the ability to analyze and synthesize medical information, to reason independently, and to apply the concepts of medical decision-making and problem-solving to complex patient presentations. Students can also choose to repeat this core rotation as a Main Discipline Elective. PAC675 must be completed in order to begin PAC665, Long Term Care Elective
Prerequisites PAC665
Credits 5



PAC 676: Obstetrics/Gynecology

Course Description Students are assigned to work under the supervision of licensed physicians and/or physician assistants in conjunction with the healthcare team, either in an inpatient or an outpatient OB/GYN department, clinic, or office. PAC676 is a core rotation where students gain practical experience in evaluating obstetrical and gynecological patients. Students become familiar with the care and management of ante-partum and post-partum patients, and occasionally assist in deliveries. Students perform pre-natal care, including routine examinations of expectant mothers as they progress through their pregnancies. Students also become familiar with the care and management of a wide variety of gynecological problems, as well as health promotion and disease prevention of the female reproductive tract. Students develop competency in the performance of annual exams and Pap smears, counseling for birth control, infertility, menstruation, and sexuality. Students incrementally develop the ability to analyze and synthesize medical information, to reason independently, and to apply the concepts of medical decision-making and problem-solving to complex patient presentations. Students are expected to attend inpatient rounds and scheduled lectures. Students can also choose to repeat this core rotation as a Main Discipline Elective. PAC676 must be completed in order to begin PAC666, OB/GYN Elective
Prerequisites PAC 666
Credits 5



PAC 677 : Psychiatry

Course Description Students are assigned to work under the supervision of licensed physicians and/or physician assistants in conjunction with the healthcare team in an inpatient psychiatric setting, where they will learn a biopsychosocial approach to mental illness. In this elective rotation, students will evaluate and manage patients with a variety of psychiatric problems, do follow-up evaluations of those patients seen in the Psychiatric Emergency Room, and develop skills in the performance of mental status exams and psychiatric interviews. Students study the diagnoses and treatment plans of child and adolescent patients, and the daily, intensive long-term treatment of severely disturbed out-patients, to gain an understanding of psychopathology, therapeutic community and team functioning. Students incrementally develop the ability to analyze and synthesize medical information, to reason independently, and to apply the concepts of medical decision-making and problem-solving to complex patient presentations. Students are expected to attend scheduled lectures.
Prerequisites
Credits 5



PAC 682: Orthopedics

Course Description This elective clinical learning experience takes place in both the clinic and hospital settings. Students are assigned to work directly with attending physicians and/or physician assistants in conjunction with the healthcare team in the Department of Orthopedic Surgery. Students develop proficiency in the evaluation, diagnosis, and management of orthopedic problems in the adult and pediatric populations. They have the opportunity to observe and "scrub in" to assist in orthopedic surgical cases, to reinforce knowledge of sterile technique and the proper use of surgical instruments, and to participate in preoperative and postoperative management of the orthopedic patient. Students attend rounds, grand rounds, scheduled lectures and conferences while on the Orthopedic Surgery service. Students are expected to analyze and synthesize medical information, to reason independently, and to apply the concepts of medical decision-making and problem-solving to complex patient presentations. Students are required to write a clinical research paper on a relevant topic or case.
Prerequisites PAC 673
Credits 5



PAC 683: Surgical Subspecialty

Course Description This elective rotation is available to students who have completed the General Surgery rotation. The rotation provides students with further in-depth training in a variety of surgical subspecialties, such as cardiothoracic surgery, plastic and reconstructive surgery. Students are assigned to work directly with surgeons and/or physician assistants in conjunction with the healthcare team. They have the opportunity to "scrub in" to assist in surgical cases, and develop proficiency in the surgical work-up, intra-operative intervention and post-operative management of patients. They also follow patients in the critical care setting and on the floors. Students are required to attend rounds, grand rounds, scheduled lectures and conferences while on the service. Students are expected to analyze and synthesize medical information, to reason independently, and to apply the concepts of medical decision-making and problem-solving to complex patient presentations. Students are required to write a clinical research paper on a relevant topic or case.
Prerequisites PAC 673
Credits 5



PAC 684: Medical Subspecialty

Course Description This elective rotation is available to students who have completed the required Internal Medicine rotation. The rotation provides students the opportunity to concentrate on learning the work-up, diagnosis and medical management of patients with cardiac, gastrointestinal, or genitourinary diseases. Students work directly with attending physicians and/or physician assistants in conjunction with the healthcare team. Students attend rounds, grand rounds, scheduled lectures and conferences while on the service. Students are expected to analyze and synthesize medical information, to reason independently, and to apply the concepts of medical decision-making and problem-solving to complex patient presentations. Students are required to write a clinical research paper on a relevant topic or case.
Prerequisites PAC 674
Credits 5



PAC 686: Forensic Medicine

Course Description This elective rotation provides students with a clinical experience in which there is an interface between medicine and the law, especially regarding patient deaths, some of which will fall under the jurisdiction of the Medical Examiner. This rotation provides students with the opportunity to observe and perform the tasks associated with PA's who work as Forensic (medico-legal) Investigators. Working with Forensic Pathologists, students are exposed to and participate in the forensic autopsy, and also spend time in the forensic serology and toxicology labs. They are introduced to forensic anthropology, forensic odontology and forensic photography. Through this rotation, students become familiar with the modern medical examiner system, the role of the Medical Examiner, and his/her relation to the criminal justice system. Students also learn the interpersonal skills necessary in dealing with families who are coping with sudden and unexpected death, public health and safety issues, and medicolegal issues. Students attend daily case review, scheduled lectures, and conferences while on the Forensic Medicine rotation. Students are required to write a clinical research paper on a relevant topic or case.
Prerequisites
Credits 5



PAC 687: Cardiology

Course Description This elective rotation is available to students who have successfully completed the required Internal Medicine or Primary Care rotation. The rotation provides students the opportunity to learn the pathology, work-up, diagnosis and medical management of patients with cardiac diseases. Students work directly with board certified attending physicians and physician assistants in conjunction with the health care team. Students attend rounds, grand rounds, scheduled lectures and conferences while on the service. Students are expected to analyze and synthesize medical information, to reason independently, and to apply the concepts of medical decision-making and problem-solving to complex patient presentations. Students are required to write a clinical research paper on a relevant topic or case.
Prerequisites PAC 670 or 674
Credits 5



PAM 411: Physiology

Course Description A comprehensive course that provides an understanding of physiological mechanisms by which the human body functions in health and disease. Lectures analyze the physiological basis of fluid homeostasis, the role of excitable membranes, nerve and muscle function, the central nervous system, blood and hemostasis, the cardiovascular system, respiratory function, renal control of fluid and electrolyte balance, acid-base balance, endocrine and reproductive functions. In all topics, there is integration of physiological principles, pathophysiology, and clinical medicine.
Prerequisites
Credits 4



PAM 419: Introduction to Pharmacology

Course Description The first course in the Pharmacology sequence that introduces the basic principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and their application to clinical medicine. Also explores the influence and mechanisms of action of drugs upon the autonomic nervous system. Clinical case studies and problem solving sessions are utilized.
Prerequisites
Credits 1



PAM 421: Pharmacology

Course Description A continuation of PAM 419, in which students learn the clinical therapeutics essential in treating clinical conditions. Provides the student with a detailed understanding of a drug category's mechanism of action, therapeutic uses, major side effects, warnings, and precautions. Classification of drugs is covered in depth. Clinical case studies and problem solving sessions are also utilized. Practical prescription writing and legalities of prescription writing as they pertain to PA's are covered.
Prerequisites PAM 419
Credits 3



PAM 422: Medical Microbiology/Immunology

Course Description Discusses the anatomy, physiology, and relationships of bacteria, fungi, protozoa, viruses, and rickettsiae and helminths. Included are lectures on the systemic diseases caused by these organisms, control of microorganisms, antibiotics, the host-parasite relationship, and the establishment of disease. The immune system is discussed in detail, including topics on resistance to disease, immunity and serology, and immune disorders.
Prerequisites
Credits 3



PAM 423: Psychosocial / Cultural Aspects of Health Care and the PA Role

Course Description Provides a broad-based understanding of health as it relates to biological, cultural and psychosocial factors. The course incorporates views of human health and disease within the larger natural, cultural and behavioral ecosystems. Comparative studies of different belief systems and non-Western, traditional and alternative medical practices are offered for comment and discussion. The course develops students' understanding of the role of PAs in health care, their scope of practice, the team relationship, and the history of the PA profession. Students discuss concepts in health psychology and behavioral medicine that identify the psychosocial factors contributing to health and physical and emotional well-being. Defenses and adaptations are explored, as related to the types of patients the students will work with. Psychological responses to acute and chronic illness, death and dying, and understanding the psychology of the handicapped are discussed as they relate to the patient and the medical practitioner. An integral part of this course focuses on the theory and method of interviewing. Through role-playing, students learn to deal with the diversity of personality types and cultural backgrounds in the establishment of practitioner-patient relationships. Open-mindedness and a reflective attitude are emphasized in all areas of patient contact, as is the consideration not only of evidence-based approaches, but complementary and alternative approaches as well.
Prerequisites
Credits 3



PAM 427: Patho- Physiology

Course Description General concepts of disease are covered, including degeneration and necrosis, inflammation and repair, fluid and coagulation disturbances, and general aspects of neoplasia. Disease entities in each organ system are studied with regard to causation, evaluation, and morphology of pathological changes.
Prerequisites
Credits 2



PAM 428: Clinical Procedures and Diagnostic Modalities

Course Description Deals with laboratory medicine, the technical skills of clinical laboratory medicine, diagnostic imaging, and the procedure-oriented skills that students will require on rotation. The student learns basic clinical laboratory determinations and values and their correlation with normal and disease states. Practical sessions are given in urinalysis, hematology (CBC, hematocrit), and microbiology (Gram staining, pure culture techniques, antibiotic spectrum). The student is introduced to imaging modalities and their role in clinical medicine, with emphasis on conventional radiography with some discussion of ultrasound CT, and MRI. Included are studies of the chest and abdomen, GI series, GU radiology, examination of extremities, and mammography. In the lab portion, the student learns the principles of sterile technique and universal precautions. There are also hands-on sessions in phlebotomy, starting IVs, giving injections, and placing urinary catheters and nasogastric tubes.
Prerequisites
Credits 2



PAM 429/429.6: Advanced Physical Diagnosis II Lecture/ Lab - H&P'S

Course Description Consists of lecture and laboratory. The lecture component introduces the student to the concepts and techniques of medical interviewing, obtaining an accurate history, and performing a complete and thorough physical examination. The course covers the practical terminology utilized to record a medical history and physical examination. The laboratory portion emphasized the hands-on skills necessary to perfect the techniques of the physical exam. These sessions are taught in a small group setting by the graduate PAs. Sessions focusing on the examinations of the breast, genitalia, and rectum, and PAP smears are also included. During this course, the student will also be performing, under direct supervision, histories and physicals (H&P's) on patients in hospital settings. 2 credits of lecture, 1 credit of lab
Prerequisites
Credits 3



PAM 430: Obstetrics/Gynecology

Course Description Normal anatomy and physiology of the female reproductive system are reviewed. The student is taught how to perform an obstetrical history and physical, the process and management of normal pregnancy, labor, and delivery, and their associated complications. Clinical manifestations and treatment of common gynecological problems such as venereal diseases, menstrual disorders, and neoplasms are considered. Patient education is stressed as a crucial part of the management plan.
Prerequisites
Credits 2



PAM 431/431.6: PA Physical Diagnosis I Lecture/ Lab

Course Description Consists of lecture and laboratory. The lecture component introduces the student to the concepts and techniques of medical interviewing, obtaining an accurate history, and performing a complete and thorough physical examination. The course covers the practical terminology utilized to record a medical history and physical examination. The laboratory portion emphasized the hands-on skills necessary to perfect the techniques of the physical exam. These sessions are taught in a small group setting by the graduate PAs. Sessions focusing on the examinations of the breast, genitalia, and rectum, and PAP smears are also included. During this course, the student will also be performing, under direct supervision, histories and physicals (H&P's) on patients in hospital settings. 3 credits of lecture/ 1 credits of lab, respectively
Prerequisites
Credits 4



PAM 432: Clinical Molecular Mechanism of Disease

Course Description A course in human biochemistry with relevant clinical correlations. Includes structure and function of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids. The metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, amino acids, and nucleotides is studied. Also explored are effects of enzyme deficiencies, biochemical and genetic mechanisms of human disease (e.g. diabetes, hemoglobinopathies, inborn errors of metabolism), nutrition, and vitamin deficiencies.
Prerequisites
Credits 2



PAM 434/434.6: Clinical Human Anatomy Lecture/ Lab (offered at Bay Shore campus only)

Course Description Consists of a series of lecture, demonstrations, and prosections designed to provide an understanding of the structural and functional anatomy of the human body relevant to the needs of the physician assistant. Sections covered are: general anatomical concepts; upper extremity and back; head and neck; thorax and abdomen; perineum, pelvis, and lower extremity; neuroanatomy. Coordinated with the anatomy lectures are histology lectures, which introduce the student to the structure and function of cells and tissues of the body. 3 credits of lecture, 1 credit of lab
Prerequisites
Credits 4



PAM 610: Pediatrics

Course Description Students learn the physiological and psychological fundamentals of normal growth and development as they pertain to the pediatric and adolescent patient. Topics covered include neonatology and infant nutritional requirements, preventive immunization schedules, child abuse and childhood injuries. Via a systems approach, students study common childhood illnesses and their signs, symptoms, and treatment. Also emphasized is the embryology of specific organ systems, which illustrates normal developmental anatomy and the embryological basis for congenital anomalies of those systems.
Prerequisites
Credits 2



PAM 619: Introduction to Surgery

Course Description Provides students with a basic understanding of surgical topics such as wound healing, surgical techniques, and pre- and postoperative management. Includes a surgery lab where students have hands-on sessions in suturing, knot tying, and gowning and gloving.
Prerequisites
Credits 1



PAM 623: General Surgery

Course Description Encompasses general surgery and its subspecialties orthopedics and otolaryngology. General surgery is a continuation of PAM 619 and covers surgical diseases of the esophagus, stomach, intestines, circulatory system, and urogenital system. The orthopedics section considers the diagnosis and treatment of sprains, fractures, and dislocations, preparation and application of bandages, splints and casts. Common orthopedic problems of the hand, knee, shoulder and back are covered. Included is a practical session in casting. The otolaryngology unit reviews the structure and function of the ears, nose parotid glands, oral cavity, and larynx. Emphasis is placed on the recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of common ENT disorders. Normal growth patterns, abnormalities, and the special senses (hearing, taste and smell) are presented as each unit is presented. Lectures also cover the use of such basic diagnostic modalities as audiograms, tympanograms, and direct and indirect nasopharyngoscopy.
Prerequisites
Credits 3



PAM 630: Geriatrics

Course Description Deals with aging and long-term care and continues to build on the student's awareness of the social context in which health care is provided to the elderly and the chronically ill. The course emphasizes the development of communication skills necessary to enhance the humanistic practice of geriatric medicine, and prepares PA students to provide quality health care to elderly individuals in the community, long term care settings, and acute care settings. The core geriatric problems, i.e., confusion, delirium, dementia, depression, polypharmacy, dysmobility, falls, decubitus ulcers, and incontinence, are covered. Students also explore the ethical/legal issues of geriatric care. Emphasis is on the application of medical knowledge to clinical situations in the geriatric population with sensitivity and understanding, and on enhanced communication through group discussions and written work.
Prerequisites
Credits 1



PAM 634: Emergency Medicine

Course Description Initial, life-saving procedures on the critically ill and seriously injured are considered. Shock, trauma, burns, gastrointestinal, and other emergencies are covered. Additionally, students are certified in cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
Prerequisites
Credits 1



PAM 636 : Clinical Skills/Summative Evaluation

Course Description The Clinical Skills/Summative Evaluation is a cumulative mock Board Exam. The purpose of this exam is to assess students' weaknesses and strengths and prepare them for the NCCPA PANCE Board Exam. Graduation from the BS/MS program will be contingent on the successful completion of this course.
Prerequisites
Credits 1