||This advanced surgery course encompasses the surgical subspecialties of orthopedics, otolaryngology (ENT), and other special topics. The orthopedics section considers the diagnosis and treatment of sprains, fractures, and dislocations, preparation and application of bandages, splints, and casts. Common orthopedic problems of the hand, knee, shoulder, and back are covered. Included is a practical session in casting/splinting. The otolaryngology unit reviews the structure and function of the ears, nose, parotid glands, oral cavity, and larynx. Emphasis is placed on the recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of common ENT disorders. Normal growth patterns, abnormalities, and the special senses (hearing, taste, and smell) are presented as each unit is presented. Lectures also cover the use of such basic diagnostic modalities as audiograms, tympanograms, and direct and indirect nasopharyngoscopy. Special topics include lectures in neurosurgery, neoplasms, and degenerative spine disease. Emphasis is placed on application of new medical/surgical knowledge to clinical situations, and on diagnostic problem-solving and differential diagnosis. Students refine their ability to reason independently in assessing treatment options for various patient presentations.