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Course Descriptions

HS 668: Independent Study - Community Service

Course Description In keeping with the Touro College mission to serve the larger community, students in the School of Health Sciences are required to complete an independent study that involves a minimum of twenty-five (25) hours of community service with individuals disadvantaged due to illness, disability, or other circumstance. The purpose of this requirement is to (1) provide students in the School of Health Sciences with an opportunity to learn from, and give back to, the larger community; (2) enhance awareness of how a disability or illness impacts the individual, family, friends, caregivers, and community. Through this experience, students may interact with people from different cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds, with people who have impairments leading to functional limitations in the physical, cognitive, and/or social-emotional domains, or with people who struggle with issues related to poverty, homelessness and hunger. The specifics of the experience and project undertaken are negotiated on an individual basis between the student and the department faculty advisor. HS 669 may be taken as an additional elective, upon approval of the student's advisor, in the same or subsequent semesters.
Prerequisites
Credits 1



MPA 640: Applied Epidemiology and Biostatistics

Course Description As the first course in the research module, which culminates with the Master's Project, this course introduces students to common research designs in epidemiology, issues of validity and reliability in medical testing, and common techniques for analyzing group statistics. Students are also introduced to concepts of risk, population distributions and factors associated with disease, analysis of costs and benefits of intervention, as well as the knowledge necessary to interpret statistical data and research results. The course will also familiarize students with statistical concepts of frequencies, within- and between-group variability, qualitative and quantitative data, common tests of statistical significance and probability theory.
Prerequisites
Credits 2



MPA 641: Research Methods and Literature Review

Course Description As the second course in the research module, which culminates with the Master's Project, this course builds on the knowledge acquired in Applied Epidemiology & Biostatistics (MPA 640) and further focuses on variations in research methodology and experimental design. Students are introduced to comparative strengths and weaknesses of study designs, appropriate statistical analysis for specific study designs, methods of control, measurement, data collection, and guidelines for the professional communication of results. Students will also learn to conduct computerized database searches of medical literature, to evaluate evidence-based resources and apply evidence-based criteria to medical decision-making. Emphasis is on the development of skills required to contribute to the development of the body of knowledge of the profession. Ethical issues in medicine and research are discussed, including Belmont Report standards and Institutional Review Board protocol. Students learn to utilize statistical analysis software and will have an opportunity to review, critique and produce work in accordance with scientific standards in the field.
Prerequisites
Credits 3



MPA 642: Health Care Delivery Systems

Course Description Introduces students to general concepts of health care delivery and the characteristics and functions of some important delivery systems. Emphasis is placed on decentralized, community-based and primary care systems, ambulatory care systems, as well as long-term care systems. Financial and ethical issues that challenge today's system and ways to address them.
Prerequisites
Credits 3



MPA 643: Medical Ethics, Health Policy, and Professional Practice

Course Description In seminar format, topics in medical ethics that develop the analytical skills and reflective sensitivity required for responsive, responsible and productive decision-making between patients and professional. Topics discussed include ethical decisions at both the beginning and the end of life, risk/benefit decision-making in medicine, confidentiality and privacy. Students also discuss and analyze a variety of professional practice issues, such as privilege and confidentiality in communicating with patients, political and legal issues, credentialing and licensure, professional liability, and the physician-PA team relationship.
Prerequisites
Credits 2



MPA 650: Master's Project I

Course Description As the first of three seminars that are designed as a "capstone" to the program and the culmination of the research module, this seminar begins the process of developing an original scientific contribution to the fund of knowledge in the field. Students will be expected to work with a faculty advisor, begin a literature search and generate an original and testable hypothesis for their research proposal. Students will learn the structure of a research project, appropriate use of APA format and style in the communication of ideas, and demonstration of critical thought.
Prerequisites
Credits 1



MPA 651: Master's Project II

Course Description In this second of three seminars, the focus is on refining, revising and finalizing the manuscript, which reflects original ideas, expressed in graduate-level, scientific research paper format. The body of the final project is expected to be 20 to 30 pages in length (references, footnotes, etc. excluded).
Prerequisites
Credits 1



MPA 652: Master's Project III

Course Description In this final seminar the focus is on preparation of the poster presentation of completed work. The final project should be suitable for presentation at a professional conference.
Prerequisites
Credits 1



MPA 665: Evidence-Based Medicine

Course Description This course introduces physician assistant students to principles of evidence-based practice and policy, national practice guidelines and other best-practice paradigms. Various medical practice areas will be studied in an effort to demonstrate applicability of the evidence-based approach. This course teaches students to discern evidence-based approaches in the literature and apply appropriate findings to their future practice. The exercises, discussions and readings offered in this course guide students in their development as clinicians capable of mindful critique. Furthermore, the course provides strategies for integrating this new information into the student's own, personalized approach to clinical practice.
Prerequisites
Credits 2



PAC 670: Primary Care Medicine

Course Description Students are assigned to an out-patient department, primary care medical clinic or office practice, and work under supervision of licensed physicians and/or physician assistants and in conjunction with the health care team. This core rotation provides students with the opportunity to acquire the skills and knowledge necessary to serve a diverse cross-section of the patient population, and to treat patients of all ages in an ambulatory care setting. Students learn psychosocial aspects of health care as well as how to provide family-oriented primary care services, such as acute and chronic disease management, health promotion, maintenance, patient education and disease prevention. Students incrementally develop the ability to analyze and synthesize medical information, to reason independently, and to apply the concepts of medical decision-making and problem-solving to complex patient presentations. In addition, students are familiarized with the differences in the coordination, management and follow-up of the outpatient as compared to the hospitalized patient, and with recognizing when to refer the patient for hospital admission.
Prerequisites
Credits 5



PAC 671: Pediatrics

Course Description Students are assigned to work under the supervision of licensed physicians and/or physician assistants and in conjunction with the healthcare team, either in an inpatient or an outpatient pediatric department, clinic, or office. This core rotation emphasizes the care of the child from birth to adolescence. Students learn to recognize and manage common childhood illnesses, assess variations in normal growth and development, and provide preventive health care services including immunizations, routine screening, parental and interventional counseling. Students incrementally develop the ability to analyze and synthesize medical information, to reason independently, and to apply the concepts of medical decision-making and problem-solving to complex patient presentations.
Prerequisites
Credits 5



PAC 672: Emergency Medicine

Course Description Students are assigned to work under the supervision of licensed physicians and/or physician assistants and in conjunction with the healthcare team in the emergency room setting. In this core rotation, students rotate through the various areas of the Emergency Department, including medical, surgical, pediatric, orthopedic, and fast track. Students learn to systematically evaluate and manage patients with acute medical and surgical emergencies, perform diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, and participate in cardiac and trauma resuscitations. Students incrementally develop the ability to analyze and synthesize medical information, to reason independently, and to apply the concepts of medical decision-making and problem-solving to complex patient presentations. Students are expected to attend grand rounds and scheduled lectures.
Prerequisites
Credits 5



PAC 673: Surgery

Course Description Students are assigned to work under the supervision of licensed surgeons and/or physician assistants and in conjunction with the healthcare team in the Department of Surgery. In this core rotation, students become involved in all phases of diagnosis and treatment of the surgical patient, including pre-operative, operative, and post-anesthesia care. They learn the practical management of fluid, electrolyte and nutritional disturbances, post-operative infections, as well as wound healing and wound care. They scrub into the operating room and observe and assist in a variety of surgical procedures as assigned by the preceptor(s), and also become involved in the management of the critically ill surgical patient. Students incrementally develop the ability to analyze and synthesize medical information, to reason independently, and to apply the concepts of medical decision-making and problem-solving to complex patient presentations. Students are expected to attend daily rounds, grand rounds, morbidity & mortality conferences and scheduled lectures.
Prerequisites
Credits 5



PAC 674: Internal Medicine

Course Description Students are assigned to the Department of Medicine and work directly under the supervision of the medical house staff. In this core rotation, students medically evaluate hospitalized patients and follow their daily progress. In doing so, students learn to correlate history and physical findings with the patient's physiological and laboratory data and emotional state, in order to arrive at a differential diagnosis, formulate a treatment plan, and provide continuity of care. Students develop skills and demonstrate competency in performing and interpreting a variety of medical procedures and tasks. Attendance at daily rounds, grand rounds, medical conferences and an orientation to the medical intensive care unit are required. In certain settings, there are opportunities to work with the house-staff who are assigned to the medical clinic area, to monitor and follow up patient management problems, and to participate in the formulation of their management plans. Students incrementally develop the ability to analyze and synthesize medical information, to reason independently, and to apply the concepts of medical decision-making and problem-solving to complex patient presentations. Students are expected to attend daily rounds, grand rounds, and scheduled lectures.
Prerequisites
Credits 5



PAC 675: Long-Term Care

Course Description Students are assigned to work under the supervision of licensed physicians and/or physician assistants in conjunction with the healthcare team to gain practical clinical experience in working with the elderly and those patients who are suffering from chronic diseases. In this core rotation, students are exposed to a wide variety of common geriatric and long-term care problems. This rotation stresses characteristics of the normal aging process, so that students may better identify and address deviations from the norm. Students gain exposure to end-of-life issues and psychosocial dynamics. Students incrementally develop the ability to analyze and synthesize medical information, to reason independently, and to apply the concepts of medical decision-making and problem-solving to complex patient presentations.
Prerequisites
Credits 5



PAC 676: Obstetrics/Gynecology

Course Description Students are assigned to work under the supervision of licensed physicians and/or physician assistants in conjunction with the healthcare team, either in an inpatient or an outpatient OB/GYN department, clinic, or office. In this core rotation, students gain practical experience in evaluating obstetrical and gynecological patients. Students become familiar with the care and management of ante-partum and post-partum patients, and occasionally assist in deliveries. Students perform pre-natal care, including routine examinations of expectant mothers as they progress through their pregnancies. Students also become familiar with the care and management of a wide variety of gynecological problems, as well as health promotion and disease prevention of the female reproductive tract. Students develop competency in the performance of annual exams and Pap smears, counseling for birth control, infertility, menstruation, and sexuality. Students incrementally develop the ability to analyze and synthesize medical information, to reason independently, and to apply the concepts of medical decision-making and problem-solving to complex patient presentations. Students are expected to attend inpatient rounds and scheduled lectures.
Prerequisites
Credits 5



PAC 677: Psychiatry

Course Description Students are assigned to work under the supervision of licensed physicians and/or physician assistants in conjunction with the health care team in an inpatient psychiatric setting, where they will learn a biopsychosocial approach to mental illness. In this rotation, students will evaluate and manage patients with a variety of psychiatric problems, do follow-up evaluations of those patients seen in the Psychiatric Emergency Room, and develop skills in the performance of mental status exams and psychiatric interviews. Students study the diagnoses and treatment plans of child and adolescent patients, and the daily, intensive long-term treatment of severely disturbed out-patients, to gain an understanding of psychopathology, therapeutic community and team functioning. Students incrementally develop the ability to analyze and synthesize medical information, to reason independently, and to apply the concepts of medical decision-making and problem-solving to complex patient presentations. Students are expected to attend scheduled lectures.
Prerequisites
Credits 5



PAC 680: Pediatric Subspecialty

Course Description This elective rotation provides students with another pediatric clinical experience, and is available to those who have completed the required Pediatrics rotation. Students are assigned to work directly with pediatricians in a private office or hospital setting. Students gain experience in analyzing historical and physical findings and diagnostic tests to formulate differential diagnoses, treatment plans, and counseling strategies. Students are expected to analyze and synthesize medical information, to reason independently, and to apply the concepts of medical decision-making and problem-solving to complex patient presentations. Students may be required to write a clinical research paper on a relevant topic or case or take a comprehensive exam.
Prerequisites PAC 671.
Credits 5



PAC 681: Infectious Diseases

Course Description This elective clinical learning experience takes place in both in-patient and out-patient settings. Students are assigned to work directly with attending physicians and/or physician assistants in conjunction with the health care team in the Department of Infectious Diseases. Students develop proficiency in anti-microbial therapy, immunizations, and the work-up and management of infectious diseases, with special emphasis on AIDS and AIDS-related illnesses. Also, students learn and apply infectious disease control measures. Students may attend rounds, grand rounds, scheduled lectures and conferences while on the Infectious Diseases service. Students are expected to analyze and synthesize medical information, to reason independently, and to apply the concepts of medical decision-making and problem-solving to complex patient presentations. Students may be required to write a clinical research paper on a relevant topic or case or take a comprehensive exam.
Prerequisites PAC 674.
Credits 5



PAC 682: Orthopedics

Course Description This elective clinical learning experience takes place in both the clinic and hospital settings. Students are assigned to work directly with attending physicians and/or physician assistants in conjunction with the healthcare team in the Department of Orthopedic Surgery. Students develop proficiency in the evaluation, diagnosis, and management of orthopedic problems in the adult and pediatric populations. They have the opportunity to observe and "scrub in" to assist in orthopedic surgical cases, to reinforce knowledge of sterile technique and the proper use of surgical instruments, and to participate in preoperative and postoperative management of the orthopedic patient. Students attend rounds, grand rounds, scheduled lectures and conferences while on the Orthopedic Surgery service. Students are expected to analyze and synthesize medical information, to reason independently, and to apply the concepts of medical decision-making and problem-solving to complex patient presentations. Students may be required to write a clinical research paper on a relevant topic or case or take a comprehensive exam.
Prerequisites PAC 673.
Credits 5



PAC 683: Surgical Subspecialty

Course Description This elective rotation is available to students who have completed the General Surgery rotation. The rotation provides students with further in-depth training in a variety of surgical subspecialties, such as cardiothoracic surgery, plastic and reconstructive surgery. Students are assigned to work directly with surgeons and/or physician assistants in conjunction with the healthcare team. They have the opportunity to "scrub in" to assist in surgical cases, and develop proficiency in the surgical work-up, intra-operative intervention and post-operative management of patients. They also follow patients in the critical care setting and on the floors. Students are required to attend rounds, grand rounds, scheduled lectures and conferences while on the service. Students are expected to analyze and synthesize medical information, to reason independently, and to apply the concepts of medical decision-making and problem-solving to complex patient presentations. . Students may be required to write a clinical research paper on a relevant topic or case or take a comprehensive exam.
Prerequisites PAC 673.
Credits 5



PAC 684: Medical Subspecialty

Course Description This elective rotation is available to students who have completed the required Internal Medicine rotation. The rotation provides students the opportunity to concentrate on learning the work-up, diagnosis and medical management of patients with cardiac, gastrointestinal, or genitourinary diseases. Students work directly with attending physicians and/or physician assistants in conjunction with the health care team. Students attend rounds, grand rounds, scheduled lectures and conferences while on the service. Students are expected to analyze and synthesize medical information, to reason independently, and to apply the concepts of medical decision-making and problem-solving to complex patient presentations. Students may be required to write a clinical research paper on a relevant topic or case or take a comprehensive exam.
Prerequisites PAC 674.
Credits 5



PAC 685: Critical Care Management

Course Description This elective clinical learning experience is available to students who have completed the General Surgery rotation, and takes place in the Surgical Intensive Care Unit. Students are assigned to work directly with attending physicians and/or physician assistants in conjunction with the healthcare team in the Surgical ICU, where they develop proficiency in the management of critically ill surgical patients. Students become familiar with the placement, maintenance, monitoring and removal of central venous lines, Swan-Ganz catheters, chest tubes and arterial lines. Fluid and electrolyte management, the management of ventilator patients, the interpretation of arterial blood gas measurements, and the pharmacological agents utilized in the care of the critically ill, are also practiced. Students attend rounds, grand rounds, scheduled lectures and conferences while assigned to the Surgical Intensive Care Unit. Students are expected to analyze and synthesize medical information, to reason independently, and to apply the concepts of medical decision-making and problem-solving to complex patient presentations. Students may be required to write a clinical research paper on a relevant topic or case or take a comprehensive exam.
Prerequisites PAC 673.
Credits 5



PAC 686: Forensic Medicine

Course Description This elective rotation provides students with a clinical experience in which there is an interface between medicine and the law, especially regarding patient deaths, some of which will fall under the jurisdiction of the Medical Examiner. This rotation provides students with the opportunity to observe and perform the tasks associated with PA's who work as Forensic (medico-legal) Investigators. Working with Forensic Pathologists, students are exposed to and participate in the forensic autopsy, and also spend time in the forensic serology and toxicology labs. They are introduced to forensic anthropology, forensic odontology and forensic photography. Through this rotation, students become familiar with the modern medical examiner system, the role of the Medical Examiner, and his/her relation to the criminal justice system. Students also learn the interpersonal skills necessary in dealing with families who are coping with sudden and unexpected death, public health and safety issues, and medicolegal issues. Students attend daily case review, scheduled lectures, and conferences while on the Forensic Medicine rotation. Students may be required to write a clinical research paper on a relevant topic or case or take a comprehensive exam.
Prerequisites PAC 674.
Credits 5



PAC 687: Cardiology

Course Description This elective rotation is available to students who have successfully completed the required Internal Medicine or Primary Care rotation. The rotation provides students the opportunity to learn the pathology, work-up, diagnosis and medical management of patients with cardiac diseases. Students work directly with board-certified attending physicians and physician assistants in conjunction with the health care team. Students may attend rounds, grand rounds, scheduled lectures and conferences while on the service. Students are expected to analyze and synthesize medical information, to reason independently, and to apply the concepts of medical decision-making and problem-solving to complex patient presentations. Students are required to write a clinical research paper on a relevant topic or case.
Prerequisites PAC 670 or PAC 674
Credits 5



PAC 700: Advanced Elective Rotation

Course Description This is a second elective learning experience of 4 weeks' duration, scheduled during the last semester of the program, where the student develops a one-on-one relationship with the supervising physician. The student has the opportunity to gain a more advanced level of clinical experience in an area or specialty of future employment. Students are expected to analyze and synthesize medical information, to reason independently, and to apply the concepts of medical decision-making and problem-solving to complex patient presentations.
Prerequisites Any one of PAC 680-PAC 690.
Credits 4



PAM 409: Human Anatomy

Course Description An integrated lecture-laboratory course in gross anatomy designed to provide an understanding of the structural and functional anatomy of the human body relevant to the needs of the physician assistant. Clinical problems are used to highlight the importance of anatomy to the understanding of the clinical sciences. Sections covered include general anatomical concepts, central nervous system, upper extremities and back, head and neck, thorax and abdomen, perineum, pelvis and lower extremities. The laboratory component of the course entails a combination of prosection demonstrations in a cadaver lab and sessions in the computer lab.
Prerequisites
Credits 4



PAM 411: Physiology

Course Description A comprehensive course that provides an understanding of physiological mechanisms by which the human body functions in health and disease. Lectures analyze the physiological basis of fluid homeostasis, the role of excitable membranes, nerve and muscle function, the central nervous system, blood and hemostasis, the cardiovascular system, respiratory function, renal control of fluid and electrolyte balance, acid-base balance, endocrine and reproductive functions. In all topics, there is integration of physiological principles, pathophysiology, and clinical medicine.
Prerequisites
Credits 4



PAM 413: Clinical Biochemistry

Course Description A course in human biochemistry with relevant clinical correlations. Includes structure and function of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids. The metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, amino acids, and nucleotides is studied. Also explored are effects of enzyme deficiencies, biochemical and genetic mechanisms of human disease (e.g. diabetes, hemoglobinopathies, inborn errors of metabolism), nutrition, and vitamin deficiencies.
Prerequisites
Credits 2



PAM 414: Microbiology/Immunology

Course Description Covers basic and clinical aspects of bacteriology, virology, mycology, parasitology, and immunology. Emphasis is placed on the application of microbiology concepts to clinical practice, including the systemic diseases caused by these organisms, control of microorganisms, antibiotics, the host-parasite relationship, and the establishment of disease. The immune system is discussed in detail, including topics on resistance to disease, immunity and serology, and immune disorders.
Prerequisites
Credits 2



PAM 416: Pathology

Course Description The course explores the causes and mechanisms of disease and the associated alterations of structure and function of tissues. General concepts of disease are covered, including degeneration and necrosis, inflammation and repair, fluid and coagulation disturbances, and general aspects of neoplasia. Disease entities in each organ system are studied with regard to causation, evaluation, and morphology of pathological changes.
Prerequisites
Credits 3



PAM 417: Physical Diagnosis I

Course Description The first semester of a 2-semester course consisting of lecture and laboratory. The lecture component introduces the student to the concepts and techniques of medical interviewing, obtaining an accurate history, and performing a physical examination system by system. The course covers the practical terminology utilized in recording a medical history and physical examination, and in describing clinical findings associated with common pathologies seen in each system. The laboratory portion, taught in small group settings, emphasizes the hands-on skills necessary to perfect the techniques of the physical exam. Emphasis is also placed on perfecting the written history and physical. The medical Spanish self-study portion of this course is designed to provide rudimentary knowledge of the language to aid in communication when interviewing Spanish-speaking patients.
Prerequisites
Credits 4



PAM 418: Physical Diagnosis II

Course Description The second semester of a 2-semester course consisting of lecture and laboratory. The lecture component continues with general aspects of a normal physical exam, teaching the student to recognize normal and abnormal findings, understand their significance, accurately describe and notate them, and formulate a differential diagnosis. The laboratory portion, taught in small groups, emphasizes the hands-on skills necessary to perfect the techniques of the physical exam, performed efficiently and sensitively, in a system-by-system approach. H&P writing skills are also emphasized. Students learn to perform a comprehensive and integrated physical exam without the benefit of teaching aids and in a timely manner.
Prerequisites PAM 417.
Credits 2



PAM 419: Introduction to Pharmacology

Course Description The first course in the Pharmacology sequence that introduces the basic principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and their application to clinical medicine. Also explores the influence and mechanisms of action of drugs upon the autonomic nervous system. Students begin to learn mechanisms of action, therapeutic uses, major side effects, warnings, and precautions for drugs used to treat diseases covered in the clinical medicine course(s) given during the semester. Students learn the basic principles of prescription writing. Clinical case studies and problem solving sessions are introduced.
Prerequisites
Credits 2



PAM 423: Psychosocial/Cultural Aspects of Health Care and the PA Role

Course Description Provides a broad-based understanding of health as it relates to biological, cultural and psychosocial factors. The course incorporates views of human health and disease within the larger natural, cultural and behavioral ecosystems. Comparative studies of different belief systems and non-Western, traditional and alternative medical practices are offered for comment and discussion. The course develops students' understanding of the role of PAs in health care, their scope of practice, the team relationship, and the history of the PA profession. Students discuss concepts in health psychology and behavioral medicine that identify the psychosocial factors contributing to health and physical and emotional well-being. Defenses and adaptations are explored, as related to the types of patients the students will work with. Psychological responses to acute and chronic illness, death and dying, and understanding the psychology of the handicapped are discussed as they relate to the patient and the medical practitioner. An integral part of this course focuses on the theory and method of interviewing. Through role-playing, students learn to deal with the diversity of personality types and cultural backgrounds in the establishment of practitioner-patient relationships. Open-mindedness and a reflective attitude are emphasized in all areas of patient contact, as is the consideration not only of evidence-based approaches, but complementary and alternative approaches as well. In an introduction to epidemiology, students are introduced to concepts in epidemiology and community-oriented to primary health care. Students are provided with the skills to comprehend and perform basic community epidemiology investigation in areas of concern related to primary care medicine (i.e., community health assessment). The fundamentals of epidemiology will serve as the basis for learning how to read and interpret the medical literature.
Prerequisites
Credits 3



PAM 426: Diagnostic Modalities (3 modules - Laboratory Medicine, Diagnostic Modalities, ECG)

Course Description Composed of three modules - laboratory medicine, diagnostic imaging, and ECG. Students gain competence in assessing and interpreting diagnostic tests, and learn basic clinical laboratory determinations and values and their correlation with normal and disease states. Practical sessions are given in urinalysis, hematology (CBC, hematocrit), and microbiology (Gram staining, pure culture techniques, antibiotic spectrum). Imaging modalities and their role in clinical medicine are introduced, with emphasis on conventional radiography and some discussion of ultrasound, CT, and MRI. Included are studies of the chest and abdomen, GI series, GU radiology, examination of extremities, and mammography. Basic concepts in ECG interpretation are taught, including principles of ECG tracings, rate and axis determination, and recognition of abnormal tracings.
Prerequisites
Credits 2



PAM 600: Medicine I (1 module - Pulmonary Medicine)

Course Description The first of a series of intensive medicine courses that cover the etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of common disease entities in various areas of medicine. This course consists of the module in pulmonary medicine. The pathophysiology of the organ system in relation to the various disease processes is integrated with the clinical presentations, historical and physical findings, and laboratory and radiographic test results. Emphasis is placed on application of new medical knowledge to clinical situations, on diagnostic problem-solving and differential diagnosis, and on issues of patient education and preventive medicine. Students refine their ability to reason independently in developing treatment and management plans for various patient presentations.
Prerequisites
Credits 1



PAM 601: Medicine II (2 modules - Cardiology, Hematology)

Course Description An intensive medicine course that covers the etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of common diseases in the modules of cardiology and hematology. The pathophysiology of the organ systems in relation to the various disease processes is integrated with the clinical presentations, historical and physical findings, and laboratory and radiographic test results. Emphasis is placed on application of new medical knowledge to clinical situations, on diagnostic problem-solving and differential diagnosis, and on issues of patient education and preventive medicine. Students refine their ability to reason independently in developing treatment and management plans for various patient presentations. Common cardiac disorders seen in primary care are considered, such as coronary artery disease, angina, cardiac enlargement, arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, and hypertension. Clinical case scenarios and ECG interpretation are utilized to reinforce the lecture material and to develop critical thinking skills. Students learn the clinical approach to hematologic disorders, such as anemias, hemoglobinopathies, and disorders of hemostasis, and are also introduced to hematologic oncology.
Prerequisites
Credits 3



PAM 602: Medicine III (3 modules - Gastroenterology, Dermatology, Rheumatology)

Course Description An intensive medicine course that covers the etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of common diseases in the modules of gastroenterology, dermatology, and rheumatology. The pathophysiology of the organ systems in relation to the various disease processes is integrated with the clinical presentations, historical and physical findings, and laboratory and radiographic test results. Emphasis is placed on application of new medical knowledge to clinical situations, on diagnostic problem-solving and differential diagnosis, and on issues of patient education and preventive medicine. Students refine their ability to reason independently in developing treatment and management plans for various patient presentations.
Prerequisites
Credits 3



PAM 603: Medicine IV (2 modules - Neurology, Ophthalmology) (formerly PAM 604)

Course Description An intensive medicine course that covers the etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of common diseases in the modules of neurology and ophthalmology. The pathophysiology of the organ systems in relation to the various disease processes is integrated with the clinical presentations, historical and physical findings, and laboratory and radiographic test results. Emphasis is placed on application of new medical knowledge to clinical situations, on diagnostic problem-solving and differential diagnosis, and on issues of patient education and preventive medicine. Students refine their ability to reason independently in developing treatment and management plans for various patient presentations.
Prerequisites
Credits 2



PAM 604: Medicine V (3 modules - Nephrology, Endocrinology, Infectious Diseases) (formerly PAM 603)

Course Description An intensive medicine course that covers the etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of common diseases in the modules of nephrology, endocrinology, and infectious diseases. The pathophysiology of the organ systems in relation to the various disease processes is integrated with the clinical presentations, historical and physical findings, and laboratory and radiographic test results. Emphasis is placed on application of new medical knowledge to clinical situations, on diagnostic problem-solving and differential diagnosis, and on issues of patient education and preventive medicine. Students refine their ability to reason independently in developing treatment and management plans for various patient presentations.
Prerequisites
Credits 2



PAM 605: Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine

Course Description Deals with psychiatric and mental health disorders frequently encountered in outpatient settings. Lectures cover basic human behavior, psychological development and personality functioning, and major mental illnesses. Topics include depression, anxiety, phobia, psychosis, neurosis, and personality disorders. Human sexuality, sexual concerns and dysfunction are also discussed, and the relationship between drugs, health, and society is examined. The course provides a basic framework for treating the common psychiatric disorders that are seen in general medical practices, and an understanding of when specialized referral is needed. Emphasis is placed on application of new medical knowledge to clinical situations, and on diagnostic problem-solving and differential diagnosis. Students refine their ability to reason independently in developing treatment and management plans for various patient presentations.
Prerequisites
Credits 2



PAM 606: Pharmacology I (formerly PAM 421)

Course Description A continuation of PAM 419, in which students learn the clinical therapeutics essential in treating clinical conditions. Provides the student with a detailed understanding of a drug category's mechanism of action, therapeutic uses, major side effects, warnings, and precautions of the drugs used to treat diseases covered in the clinical medicine course(s) given during the semester. Classification of drugs is covered in depth. Practical prescription writing and legalities of prescription writing as they pertain to PA's are incorporated into clinical case studies and problem solving sessions.
Prerequisites PAM 419.
Credits 2



PAM 607: Pharmacology II

Course Description A continuation of PAM 606, in which students learn the clinical therapeutics essential in treating clinical conditions. Provides the student with a detailed understanding of a drug category's mechanism of action, therapeutic uses, major side effects, warnings, and precautions of the drugs used to treat diseases covered in the clinical medicine course(s) during the same semester. Classification of drugs continues to be covered in depth. Practical prescription writing and legalities of prescription writing as they pertain to PA's are further incorporated into clinical case studies and problem solving sessions.
Prerequisites PAM 419
Credits 2



PAM 610: Pediatrics

Course Description Students learn the physiological and psychological fundamentals of normal growth and development as they pertain to the pediatric and adolescent patient. Topics covered include neonatology and infant nutritional requirements, preventive immunization schedules, child abuse and childhood injuries. Via a systems approach, students study common childhood illnesses and their signs, symptoms, and treatment. Also emphasized is the embryology of specific organ systems, which illustrates normal developmental anatomy and the embryological basis for congenital anomalies of those systems.
Prerequisites
Credits 2



PAM 611: Obstetrics/Gynecology

Course Description Students are instructed in the process and management of normal pregnancy, obtaining an obstetrical history and physical, labor and delivery, and their associated complications. Clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of common gynecological problems such as sexually-transmitted illnesses, menstrual disorders, and neoplasms are considered. Patient education is stressed as a crucial part of the management plan.
Prerequisites
Credits 2



PAM 620: Surgery I

Course Description The first in a series of courses dealing with general surgical concepts in the management of the surgical patient. Provides students with a core understanding of mechanisms of wound healing, surgical techniques, and pre- and post-operative management of surgical problems. Included are illnesses that require surgical intervention, their signs and symptoms, diagnostic modalities, and outcomes. Also covered are basic concepts in anesthesiology.
Prerequisites
Credits 2



PAM 621: Surgery II

Course Description A continuation of PAM 620 and the second in a series considering topics in surgical subspecialties, providing students with the academic preparation to evaluate and manage patients with surgical conditions in a clinical setting. Areas covered are urology, cardiovascular surgery, pediatric surgery, plastic and reconstructive surgery, hand surgery, head and neck surgery, and transplant. Included is a practical session in suturing, knot tying, and sterile technique. Students learn about critical care management and how to function as members of a critical care team in the ICU, CCU, and NICU. Topics covered include basic physiologic needs of critical care patients, gas exchange kinetics and pathophysiology, management of multi-organ failure, burn trauma, and neonatal intensive care. An essential focus of the course is the development of skills in clinical reasoning, self-directed learning, teamwork, and communication. Emphasis is placed on the application of new medical/surgical knowledge to clinical situations.
Prerequisites PAM 620.
Credits 2



PAM 622: Surgery III (3 modules - Orthopedics, ENT, Special Topics)

Course Description This advanced surgery course encompasses the surgical subspecialties of orthopedics, otolaryngology (ENT), and other special topics. The orthopedics section considers the diagnosis and treatment of sprains, fractures, and dislocations, preparation and application of bandages, splints, and casts. Common orthopedic problems of the hand, knee, shoulder, and back are covered. Included is a practical session in casting/splinting. The otolaryngology unit reviews the structure and function of the ears, nose, parotid glands, oral cavity, and larynx. Emphasis is placed on the recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of common ENT disorders. Normal growth patterns, abnormalities, and the special senses (hearing, taste, and smell) are presented as each unit is presented. Lectures also cover the use of such basic diagnostic modalities as audiograms, tympanograms, and direct and indirect nasopharyngoscopy. Special topics include lectures in neurosurgery, neoplasms, and degenerative spine disease. Emphasis is placed on application of new medical/surgical knowledge to clinical situations, and on diagnostic problem-solving and differential diagnosis. Students refine their ability to reason independently in assessing treatment options for various patient presentations.
Prerequisites PAM 620.
Credits 2



PAM 625: Emergency Medicine I

Course Description The first of a two-semester course sequence dealing with the management and treatment options of severely injured and critically ill patients. Students are taught the key points of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical features and differential diagnosis of many disease entities, as they may present in the Emergency Department. They will learn the art of drawing sufficient conclusions from insufficient resources. Topics include pulmonary and cardiac emergencies, GI emergencies, infections in the ED, renal and GU emergencies, GYN and obstetrical emergencies, psychosocial emergencies, and disaster management.
Prerequisites
Credits 1



PAM 626: Emergency Medicine II

Course Description This is the second of a two-semester course sequence. Students are taught the key points of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical features and differential diagnosis of many disease entities, as they may present in the Emergency Department. Also includes the recognition and appropriate early intervention and management of traumatic injuries. Other topics include toxicology, dental emergencies, environmental emergencies, ENT emergencies, burns, neurological emergencies, pediatric emergencies, hematologic and oncologic emergencies, and endocrine emergencies.
Prerequisites PAM 625.
Credits 2



PAM 630: Geriatrics

Course Description Deals with aging and long-term care and continues to build on the student's awareness of the social context in which health care is provided to the elderly and the chronically ill. The course emphasizes the development of communication skills necessary to enhance the humanistic practice of geriatric medicine, and prepares PA students to provide quality health care to elderly individuals in the community, long term care settings, and acute care settings. The core geriatric problems, i.e., confusion, delirium, dementia, depression, polypharmacy, dysmobility, falls, decubitus ulcers, and incontinence, are covered. Students also explore the ethical/legal issues of geriatric care. Emphasis is on the application of medical knowledge to clinical situations in the geriatric population with sensitivity and understanding, and on enhanced communication through group discussions and written work.
Prerequisites
Credits 1



PAM 635: Clinical Skills

Course Description Enables the student to develop and perfect skills that will be required on clinical rotations. The course encompasses Clinical Experiences, Clinical Procedures, and Clinical Correlations. The Clinical Experiences component provides the students with direct patient contact wherein they can perfect their skills in history-taking, physical examination, and writing H&Ps. In the Clinical Procedures component, students learn the basic principles of sterile technique and universal precautions. There are hands-on sessions in phlebotomy, starting IVs, giving injections, placing urinary catheters and nasogastric tubes. The Clinical Correlations component allows students to fully assimilate and utilize their medical and basic sciences knowledge along with problem-oriented history and physical examination skills to analyze the types of patient health care problems they may encounter in the clinical environment. This component utilizes the problem-based learning method as an instructional model, wherein students work both in groups and individually to apply critical reasoning skills to the assessment of clinical problems and case scenarios.
Prerequisites
Credits 2



PAM 636: Clinical Skills/Board Review/Summative Evaluation

Course Description The Clinical Skills/Summative Evaluation is a cumulative mock Board Exam. The purpose of this exam is to assess student' weaknesses and strengths and prepare them for the NCCPA PANCE Board Exam. General principles of clinical observation, assessment, establishment of treatment goals, report writing, and documentation will be addressed. Graduation from the BS/MS program will be contingent on the successful completion of this course.
Prerequisites
Credits 1